World Magazine’s Books of the Year 2021 Issue

One of my longtime favorite magazine’s is the Christian bi-weekly news magazine World. And one of my favorite annual issues is the “Books of the Year” issue, which usually is published at the end of the year. This year it is the latest issue – Dec.4, 2021 – and once more it is packed with significant titles of interest and benefit to thinking and growing Christians.

Editor Michael Reneau introduces it with this words:

Dear Friend,

Our annual Books of the Year issue has always been one of my favorites, even before I began working for WORLD. As I edited our writers’ reviews across four categories of books this year, a theme emerged. From the introduction I wrote to this issue’s package of reviews: “These books don’t shrink from conflicts in a world still groaning for the redemption the Scriptures promise, but they do help us remember God is still at work, in details great and small. As we enter seasons of Thanksgiving and celebrating God incarnate, our 2021 Books of the Year in four categories help us remember who’s in charge of a still-fallen world.”

There are four categories of books featured, with the book chosen as the “book of the year” in each category highlighted and others worthy of “honorable mention” described afterward. Want to see the one chosen in the “accessible theology” category?

Holding fast

Go and check it out for yourself. Your next good read may be a look away!

Published in: on November 30, 2021 at 10:29 PM  Leave a Comment  

Loving the Real, Visible, Local Church

The Local Church

“The second factor [leading to a weak view of the church] is the mistaken emphasis on the “invisible” church. Pastors and theologians throughout the centuries have relied on the helpful categories of the visible and the invisible church in order to view churches in the present alongside the holy, universal (catholic) church throughout all time. Stated simply, the visible church is the church as we see it, and the invisible church is the church as God sees it. The distinction between the visible and the invisible church finds biblical grounding in Jesus’s prayer of dedication in John 17, a prayer heard by a local “gathering” and yet extended throughout all time and divisions. This prayer will be fully realized only when the chief Shepherd returns to finally “gather” his true and total church. This twofold category of the church was never an invitation for a Christian to affirm the church in its invisible sense alone (the church as God alone sees it) while ignoring the visible church (the church as we see it). Rather, its purpose was to help the Christian see the fullness of God’s people as told by the biblical story, even from the limited perspective of the local church in their own place and time.

“Even though this distinction goes back all the way to Augustine, the Protestant Reformers regularly utilized it for pastoral purposes. John Calvin provides a helpful example in book 4 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Calvin invokes these categories to give his readers spectacles not only to see the whole church—the visible (“the saints presently living”) and the invisible (“all the elect from the beginning of the world”)—but also to see their own church, which alongside the true children of God may also be “mingled” with “many hypocrites who have nothing of Christ but the name and outward appearance.”

“Pastorally, then, this category helps Christians deal with the hypocrisy they see in their own churches, without giving them warrant to reject or disregard the ​​church. Even more, the Reformers used the distinction to unite the Christian to the church, not to allow for disassociation of any sorts. Calvin’s pastoral exhortation is worthy of note: “Just as we must believe, therefore, that the former church, invisible to us, is visible to the eyes of God alone, so we are commanded to revere and keep communion with the latter, which is called ‘church’ in respect to men.”2

“This practical application of the visible and invisible church needs to be heard among Christians today. Too many Christians speak of “the church” in abstraction, in its invisible, mystical, and metaphorical sense, and not in a way that matches the church that we can see, attend, and join. Whether driven by the cultural emphasis on a mystical “spiritual life” or by the imbalanced theological leaning toward the invisible church, Christians are in great need of the located and visible church— their local church.”

Part of an article drawn from the new book by Edward W. Klink III, The Local Church: What It Is and Why It Matters for Every Christian (Crossway, 2021).

Published in: on November 27, 2021 at 9:56 PM  Leave a Comment  

Thanksgiving 2021 – Gratitude in All Things, with a Spirit of Giving More Than Receiving

On this Thanksgiving Day 2021 in the U.S., we wish all of you a blessed and peaceful day of humble gratitude with family and loved ones. May our souls “bless the LORD and forget not all his benefits” – from His merciful forgiving of our sins to His daily supply of our bread (Psalm 103) – and may our lips praise Him because His lovingkindness is better than life (Psalm 63:3).

This is a time to remember our history as a country and to recount how God has ruled over us in His sovereign power and by His mighty grace for the good of His church and people.

Columnist Cal Thomas has some good thoughts for us on this day, as published this morning by The Daily Signal (Heritage Foundation). It is titled “A Time to Remember It’s More Blessed to Give Than Receive.”

“What we regard as the first Thanksgiving was recorded in 1621 after the Pilgrims’ first harvest. Despite their many challenges, including colleagues and family members who had died on the treacherous journey from England and others who had succumbed to disease after their arrival in the New World, these adventurous explorers still thanked God for their survival and for the religious freedoms they believed were now theirs. Gratitude should be a model for us, who are many times more blessed.

“Many know the phrase “It is more blessed to give than to receive,” but possibly not its origin. It is from Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament. What did He mean? Just that. At Thanksgiving we are supposed to be thankful for what we have received. Those who make a practice of giving to others, especially people in need, know what He meant about the greater blessing that comes from giving.

“We hear from politicians and ads on TV saying we are entitled to certain benefits and deserve them. The focus is on receiving, not giving. There is little gratitude that comes from receiving what one deserves. Much happiness can come from giving, especially to others who cannot reciprocate. The rewards last far longer than overeating at the Thanksgiving table. Giving might take the form of something material, like food, or help with a rent payment, or it could be something as simple as a phone call or note telling someone you are thinking about them and how much they matter. Try it. People want to feel they matter.

“When President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the first national Thanksgiving Day celebration in 1863, the nation was torn apart by the Civil War. In spite, or perhaps because of that tragedy, Lincoln ended his proclamation: “And I recommend to (the American people) that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquility and Union.”

“That seems to be as relevant today as it was then as we are currently torn apart by a social and political “civil war.” Still, let’s give thanks for what we have and demonstrate our gratitude by giving to others.”

Published in: on November 25, 2021 at 6:51 AM  Leave a Comment  

Sovereign Mercy and Electing Love for Publican Sinners

Ephesians 2:4 KJV

Tis Not That I Did Choose Thee (Josiah Condor, 1789-1855)

1 ‘Tis not that I did choose thee,
for, Lord, that could not be;
this heart would still refuse thee,
hadst thou not chosen me.
Thou from the sin that stained me
hast cleansed and set me free;
of old thou hast ordained me,
that I should live to thee.

2 ‘Twas sov’reign mercy called me
and taught my op’ning mind;
the world had else enthralled me,
to heav’nly glories blind.
My heart owns none before thee,
for thy rich grace I thirst;
this knowing, if I love thee,
thou must have loved me first.

Lord, Like the Publican I Stand (Thomas Raffles, 1788-1863)

1. Lord, like the publican I stand,
And lift my heart to Thee;
Thy pardoning grace, O God, command,
Be merciful to me.

2. I smite upon my anxious breast,
O’erwhelmed with agony;
O save my soul by sin oppressed,
Be merciful to me.

3. My guilt, my shame, I all confess,
I have no hope nor plea
But Jesus’ blood and righteousness;
Be merciful to me.

4. Here at Thy cross I still would wait,
Nor from its shelter flee,
But Thou, O God, in mercy great,
Art merciful to me.

Thursday night at Heritage Christian School’s all-school program the 7th & 8th-grade choirs sang a medley of these two songs (only stanzas 1 and 3 of the second. The tunes are familiar, as both are found in the 1912 Psalter (the links given above will also take you to the music). Because they struck me as profoundly biblical and expressive of our convictions on God’s sovereign grace to unworthy sinners, I thought it good to post them here. May they help us prepare for worship of the God of sovereign mercy and electing love on the morrow.

Published in: on November 20, 2021 at 9:06 PM  Comments (1)  

Needed and Wanted: Items for the PRC Archives!

In 2025, if the Lord wills, the Protestant Reformed Churches in America will celebrate her 100th anniversary (1925-2025). The PRC Synod of 2021 appointed a special centennial steering committee to plan and prepare for this once-in-a-lifetime event. Already they have begun their exciting work, including appointing sub-committees.

As we approach that milestone, the PRC archives would love to boost her holdings in all areas. And so we bring to your attention the important need for historic documents, pictures, mementos, and media (recordings (audio and video of programs, speeches, events, etc.) – anything small or great relating to PRC history – whether denominational, congregational, or personal.

You may contact Bob Drnek (archives assistant), Sharon Kleyn (secretary at the PRC Seminary), or myself (PRC archivist) here or by email/phone. We would love to see what you may have for us! Even if you are not ready to part with your treasure, we would be pleased to add it to our collection by making a digital copy.

Earlier this week I changed out the display cabinet in the hallway at seminary leading into the PRC archives (see photo above). I have our 100th anniversary in mind already (see photo below), and plan to change it more frequently in the months and years ahead as we approach the centennial. Maybe one of your donated items may find its way into one of these displays! Keep us in mind – we will be waiting to hear from you!

Published in: on November 18, 2021 at 9:52 PM  Leave a Comment  

November 2021 Tabletalk – The Kingdom of God

I have been reading through my new issue of Tabletalk – November 2021and this month’s theme as you will see from the cover image is “The Kingdom of God.” I don’t always mention it, but I also use the daily devotionals in each issue. Currently, the studies are on 2 Corinthians, and in connection with the section in that epistle on giving to the poor, the studies this week are on Christian stewardship based on R.C. Sproul’s teaching.

But, back to the theme: as is his custom, editor Burk Parsons sets the tone in his introduction to this issue on God’s kingdom with a few powerful paragraphs in “What Is the Kingdom?” including this final one:

“When Jesus taught about the kingdom of God, He primarily taught about the nature of the kingdom so that His followers might understand that in His first coming He established and inaugurated God’s kingdom, that, through the Holy Spirit, He is now expanding and increasing God’s kingdom, and that one day He will return to judge all people. When He does return, He will bring the full and final consummation of God’s kingdom; establish the new heaven and new earth; conquer all His and our enemies; save all who are true Israel and united to Him by faith; dry every tear from our eyes; and fully and finally eradicate sin and death. All these Christ secured on the cross and manifested in His victorious resurrection.”

In reading through the featured articles in this issue (and there are eleven of them!), I very much enjoyed Michael P.V. Barrett’s this past Sunday before services. He treats “The Place of God’s Kingdom,” tying God’s rule in Christ to the land of Canaan, literally in the Old Testament and figuratively in the New Testament. He makes four (4) main points about that place of the kingdom: the land was promised; it was prosperous; it was populated; and it was a place of God’s presence. In this post, I quote from the section that treats that final point:

“Fourth, the land was a place of divine presence. In the Song of the Sea, Moses included in his praise a reference to the land into which God was going to bring His people: ‘You will bring them and you will plant them in the mountain of your inheritance, the fixed place of your dwelling’ (Ex.15:17). In a special and spiritual sense, to be in the land was to be where the Lord is; it was to be in His presence. The Lord graciously assured Moses that His presence would go with him into the land, and He would give rest (Ex.33:14). The idea of ‘rest’ became synonymous with the land and God’s presence (Ps.132:13-14). Rest was where the Lord was; it marked His presence. In this sense, the land points to the final rest to be experienced by every believer in God’s heavenly kingdom, the place of His glorious presence and the believer’s eternal home (1 Peter 1:4). In another sense, it parallels the Sabbath rest enjoyed by the believer in the place of worship, where God meets with His people. The place of worship is a manifestation of the place of God’s kingdom.

“The promised land touches meaningfully on the theology of the kingdom. Both are real places. The land was symbolic of God’s presence among, protection of, and provision for His redeemed people. In the final sense, the land is typical (a picture prophecy) of God’s universal and eternal kingdom, the ultimate experience of the divine presence and consequent peace. The land speaks of both the ultimate destination of God’s people and the daily journey to that destination. Entrance into the land of rest is the final destination of believers. The kingdom is coming.”

Once again, you will find many edifying and encouraging articles in the new Tabletalk. Have you ever considered subscribing?

Published in: on November 16, 2021 at 8:51 PM  Leave a Comment  

Book Alert – and Review! The Church’s Hope: The Reformed Doctrine of the End

The Reformed Free Publishing Association recently released another important title in its collection of Reformed books: David J. Engelsma’s The Church’s Hope: The Reformed Doctrine of the End. Volume One: The Millennium.

Prof. Engelsma is emeritus professor of Dogmatics and Old Testament Studies in the Protestant Reformed Theological Seminary and former editor of the Standard Bearer. As part of his labors in both of these capacities, he lectured and wrote articles covering eschatology – only not in some broadly evangelical sense, nor from a premillennial, dispensational or a postmillennial perspective – but from a distinctively Reformed, that is, a biblical and confessional, perspective. And for him, that means an uncompromising amillennial position. This first volume of his work on the Reformed doctrine of the end covers the all-important subject of the millennium, and here it is that that amillennial position becomes clear, grounded in the Word of God and the Reformed confessions.

On its blog the RFPA also recently posted a fine review of the book by Rev. Justin Smidstra, pastor of First PRC, Holland, MI. Below is posted a portion of it, with a link to the rest. In an upcoming issue of the Standard Bearer there will also be a review of this work. Watch for that as well.

“An integral part of the message of the gospel is that the Lord Jesus is coming again. The gospel proclaims that the same Jesus, who came to save His people from their sins, shall return with great power and glory to raise the dead, to judge all men, to perfect the salvation of His elect, and to bring about the consummation of His covenant and kingdom. This is the future hope of the church of Christ. With the eyes of faith fixed upon this future hope, the calling of the NT church is to be sober and vigilant, to watch and pray, and to make herself ready for the imminent return of her Lord.

“This book, The Millennium, is the first of two volumes entitled The Church’s Hope: The Reformed Doctrine of the End. Together these two volumes will be the first part of Professor Engelmsa’s Reformed Dogmatics to be published (the remaining volumes will follow, DV). It is with a pastoral eye upon the needs of the church today that the author begins with the sixth rather than the first loci. In the dark last days in which we live, the church must know eschatology. For the church to fix the eyes of her faith upon her blessed hope, she must know the Scripture’s doctrine of the last things. She must hold for truth all that the Bible teaches concerning the end and she must contend as earnestly for this precious part of the faith once delivered, as she does for the other doctrines of the faith. In this regard, Professor Engelmsa’s work is a great asset to the church in these dark last days. The volume proclaims with clarity and sharpness the truth about the end and also wards off heresies repugnant thereto. The publication of this work is timely and relevant indeed.

“…Finally, this volume emphasizes the very real practical significance of true, biblical eschatology: the safeguarding and enjoyment of Christian hope. The true doctrine of the end gives the church hope, solid and certain hope. The millennial errors rob the church of her hope. But the truth of the Word of God fixes the eyes of her faith upon that hope: “Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ” (Titus 2:13). Herein lies a very practical reason to read this volume. The reader who delves into it will find his hope kindled and strengthened. That is what every good study of eschatology should do. It should lead the believer to look with uplifted head for the coming of the Lord and to pray with renewed earnestness “Come. Lord Jesus, Come quickly.”

If you think this book is too deep for you and only for readers of heavy and heady tomes, think again. Though the subject is indeed profound, Engelsma’s style is clear and easily digested, even if you have to chew the work slowly. A book such as this is to be read carefully and in smaller portions, but you will be richly rewarded by the truth of Christ’s coming and its implications for your life of hope. Jesus is coming in glory and power, with everlasting implications for every sinner – salvation to life with God or damnation to death apart from Him, in body and soul. Should that not inspire us to know all we can about the Lord’s return and then long for it?

Published in: on November 13, 2021 at 8:09 PM  Leave a Comment  

West Michigan Fall Splendor 2021

On seminary property, just to east of the building and parking lot. As I was leaving yesterday, the sun came out and set these trees ablaze.

It is difficult to match the glorious splendor of Fall in West Michigan. Yes, that is a biased perspective, but I have been in other parts of the country in the Fall of the year and while each area has its own beauty, I am convinced Michigan’s is spectacular extraordinaire! And I have pictures to prove it!

Open field to the northwest of seminary – on a walk last week.

While our Fall has been late this year, the colors came slowly and grandly, lasting longer than other years.

A frosty morning last week behind seminary.

And then they exploded in glorious beauty in the last week, peaking under brilliant sunshine as well as varying clouds, from dark and billowing to light and wispy.

A view of Doezema’s property, northside of the driveway (south of seminary along Ivanrest)
A view of Doezema’s property from across their pond this week Monday.

I have an expression I like to use this time of the year: “No one paints the landscape like the Lord, the Master Painter.” What a God! And what a glory He puts on display in the Fall! Shall we acknowledge His handiwork and praise Him?

Taken yesterday under the large maple in front of seminary, right after the lawn was mowed. Still green and growing! But maybe snow this weekend. That’s life in November in West Michigan!

Psalm 148

1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens: praise him in the heights.

2 Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts.

3 Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.

4 Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens.

5 Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created.

6 He hath also stablished them for ever and ever: he hath made a decree which shall not pass.

7 Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and all deeps:

8 Fire, and hail; snow, and vapour; stormy wind fulfilling his word:

9 Mountains, and all hills; fruitful trees, and all cedars:

10 Beasts, and all cattle; creeping things, and flying fowl:

11 Kings of the earth, and all people; princes, and all judges of the earth:

12 Both young men, and maidens; old men, and children:

13 Let them praise the name of the LORD: for his name alone is excellent; his glory is above the earth and heaven.

14 He also exalteth the horn of his people, the praise of all his saints; even of the children of Israel, a people near unto him. Praise ye the LORD.

Published in: on November 10, 2021 at 9:21 PM  Leave a Comment  

Making Our Calling and Election Sure (Assurance of Grace) – H. Hoeksema

… give diligence to make your calling and election sure. – II Peter 1:10

“But some may, perhaps, ask: why should it be necessary to give diligence to make our calling and election sure? Does it require special effort to become sure of our eternal salvation? Does not a Christian know that he is saved, that God called him out of darkness into His marvelous light, and is he, therefore, not spontaneously sure of his calling and election? Does he not believe in Christ, and is not his salvation a matter of his experience? Why then should he give diligence? Why should he put forth special effort to make his calling and election sure?

“However, the matter of our own salvation and of the assurance of our calling and election is not quite so simple. We should not speak and assume the attitude as if it were quite natural for the believer that he always live on the mountain tops of faith and in the bright and glorious sunshine of the full assurance of eternal glory. For to speak thus would be to ignore utterly the reality and actual position of the Christian in this world, and it would be contrary to the experience of every true believer. We must not forget that we are still in this world, not yet in heavenly perfection, and that in this world there are many forces that oppose our faith and that combine to deprive us of the assurance of our calling and election. First of all, salvation is heavenly, and we are earthly. Salvation belongs to the things which eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, and have never arisen in the heart of man. And the things that are seen engulf us on every side, have a strong hold on us, tempt us to seek the things that are below, rather than the things that are in heaven. Secondly, we lie in the midst of death, even though we have eternal life in us through Jesus Christ. We suffer and die as all men. How easy it would seem for that power of death, which is after all God’s own hand, to persuade us that God is still against us, and that we are not His children! And then, there is our old nature, and there are the motions of sin in our members, and there is the world in the midst of which we live, tempting us from the way of righteousness. What Christian does not know by experience how his own sin can rise up against him, and for a time cast a dark shadow of fear and doubt over his soul? Mark you well, I do not say that it is right for the believer to live in doubt and fear as to his calling and election. But I do say that there is plenty of reason for the Christian in this world to heed the exhortation, “Give diligence to make your calling and election sure!”

“But the question arises: how can this be done? What must we do to make our calling and election sure?

“In the light of this exhortation we dare not, of course, assume the attitude that it is impossible for the believer in this life to be sure of his personal salvation and to live in that glad assurance. One meets with Christians occasionally who assume this stand. One can never be sure, say they, of his calling and election until he finally is glorified with Christ in heaven. The best we can do is doubt and hope for the best. But this would be disobedience to the Word of God in our text, which exhorts us to give diligence to attain to this assurance. Nor must we hope for and expect some sort of special revelation from God assuring us that He wrote our name in the book of life from before the foundation of the world. Such a hope would not only be vain because it will never be realized; but it would also be detrimental for our spiritual life. For if thus, by a special voice or vision from heaven, God would assure us of our eternal election and salvation, we would rest on this revelation and give no more diligence to make our calling and election sure. And ,the text evidently would have us put forth effort, give special diligence, in order to live and walk in the assurance of our calling and election. For the same reason one cannot appeal to certain mystical experiences, feelings, whisperings of the Spirit, or the like, for this assurance. Nor, finally, must he try to base his assurance of salvation on his conversion in the past. Many seem to make this attempt. They were converted several years ago, and they know it. They accepted Christ as their personal Savior there and then. And because they vividly remember this conversion of years ago, they know that they are saved today. But also this is contrary to the text, which does not tell us to appeal to some past experience, but to give diligence today and tomorrow, every moment of our life, to make our calling and election sure.”

“How, then, does one obtain this assurance of election and calling? I would answer this question as follows. First of all, it must be emphasized that also this assurance is a gift of grace and that it can rest only on the Word of God addressed to us. Only God can assure us of our salvation. On nothing less dare we base our assurance. But how does God speak to us? Always through the Scriptures. Apart from the Word of the gospel there is no Word of God to us. Hence, if we would make our calling and election sure, we must surely give diligence to read and study the Scriptures and to attend to the Word of God preached. But how do we know that God speaks to us personally? The answer is: He speaks to us by His Spirit, and thus applies the Word of the gospel to us personally, calling us evermore out of darkness to His marvelous light, and witnessing with our spirit that we are the sons of God. (Romans 8: 16) But here we must remember that this testimony of the Spirit that we are the sons of God is heard by us through the gospel only in the way of sanctification, the way of God’s precepts, the way of repentance and conversion, the way in which the Spirit leads. In the way of sin and corruption, the way of the world and of the flesh, the Spirit does not witness with our spirit that we are children of God.

“On the contrary, in that way we grieve the Spirit; and we receive the testimony that we are still in our sins. If, then, we would make our calling and election sure, we must give diligence to walk in the way of light and righteousness, to fight the good fight of faith, according to the calling wherewith we are called.”

Quoted from chapter 14, “Assurance of Grace,” in The Wonder of Grace (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1944), pp.117-21.

Published in: on November 7, 2021 at 6:16 AM  Leave a Comment  

PRC Archives Feature – Restored Photos by G. Braaksma

Recently Mr. Gene Braaksma, a member of our Georgetown PRC here in Hudsonville, MI and hobby photographer, informed me of his work of restoring old photographs, a work I was not previously aware of. And he sent me some samples of the work he has done on a variety of pictures from PRC history. Several of these are from the PRC twenty-fifth anniversary book. Needless to say, I was very impressed, and I think you will enjoy these enhanced photos.

[This was in 1940 at First PRC – Grand Rapids, MI]
[This photo was taken in connection with H. Hoeksema’s 25th anniversary in the ministry. The gifts included that large book with signatures from PRC members throughout the denomination – from West Michigan to Southern California. That book is now part of the PRC archives.]
[These are seminary graduates – can you guess the year?]
[This is the radio choir of First PRC – Grand Rapids, MI, which performed for the live broadcasts of the Reformed Witness Hour radio program from the auditorium of First PRC on Sunday afternoons.]

When I asked him how he goes about determining colors, this is what Gene said: “To answer your question about selecting the colors being 71 years old and living through the fifties I can clearly remember how my parents and grandparents dressed and even have a couple old ties that my mother’s father had worn. He was a WW I veteran so that goes back a ways. Our ancestors in the 50s were not afraid to wear a suit or dress that was 10 years old so that brings us to the 40s. As to who gets the brown suit or the green dress that’s up to me and having a background in art I try to make things blend in a group.”

Mr. Braaksma has offered his restoration services on old photos from the PRC archives with a view to the upcoming 100th anniversary celebration of the PRC. It is my personal hope that we can put him to work on some of our old photos.

Published in: on November 4, 2021 at 9:59 PM  Comments (2)